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Estate Planning Blog

Serving Clients Throughout North Central Missouri

Should I Create Estate Plan Myself If I Live In Missouri?

US News & World Report’s recent article entitled “Do-It-Yourself Estate Planning Mistakes” provides some issues that do-it-yourself estate planners might encounter and why it is best to consult an experienced estate planning attorney.

What are the Right Questions to Ask?  Completing a simple and straightforward form—like a beneficiary designation for your IRA— is one thing, but what about tax consequences, probate law, new legislation and court procedures? Are you ready to take these on? The trick is that you may not know what you don’t know. That’s why it’s money well-spent to employ the services of an experienced estate planning attorney.

Is My Situation Complex? Likewise, you may have property and assets all over the country (or world) that require expert advice. You must be certain that your planning, tax planning and financial planning all work together because they’re all interrelated. If you only work on one of these areas at a time, you may create complications in another area and unintentionally increase your expenses or taxes. It can also create headaches and expense for your heirs. If you have a child with special needs, a blended family, or want to control how and where a beneficiary spends your money, a cookie cutter approach won’t do. Instead, you should see an experienced estate planning attorney.

What are the Probate Laws in My State? Estate planning laws and taxes are different in each state.  Your state will have different rules and legal procedures for creating and administering an estate. There are many different state laws that govern inheritance taxes. There are 17 states plus DC that tax your estate, inheritance or both, and the tax laws can affect your situation when planning. Eleven states plus DC have only an inheritance tax. One state taxes both inheritances and estates.

If you mess up your estate planning documents, if could cause significant problems for your family. You best bet is to work with an experienced estate planning attorney in your state.

Reference: US News & World Report (Dec. 18, 2020) “Do-It-Yourself Estate Planning Mistakes”

Is Estate Planning for Everyone?

What are the Biggest Mistakes Women make with Social Security?

Retirement planning is an important part of long-term financial wellness, and for women, who typically make less money and live longer than men, it can mean lower Social Security benefit payments and other problems.

Money Talk News’s article from January entitled “3 Costly Social Security Mistakes That Women Make” looks at some of the costliest Social Security mistakes that women can make.

  1. Taking your Social Security benefits too early. Deciding to take Social Security benefits too soon can be especially costly for single women and women in same-sex relationships or marriages. Women usually have a tougher time than men saving for retirement because they have lower lifetime earnings and a longer lifespan than men, on average. For single women, these challenges are compounded by the absence of a significant other bringing in additional Social Security income — or any other type of retirement income. It may be prudent for single women and women in same-sex relationships to delay claiming Social Security benefits as long as possible, so the amount of their monthly benefit is higher when they do start getting it.
  2. Forgetting about your ex-spouse. If you were married and then divorced, and your marriage lasted at least 10 years, you might be eligible for benefits through your ex-spouse. You should check to see if you’d get a better monthly payment by claiming through an ex’s earnings record, instead of your own. If you’re currently unmarried and at least 62, and your ex-spouse is at least 62, you can claim spousal benefits. Your own retirement benefits at full retirement age must be less than half of your ex’s benefits. (When you claim ex-spousal benefits, it will trigger a claim for your own benefits, unless you were born before 1954.) Even if your ex hasn’t applied for benefits yet, you can file a claim on his or her account, provided you and the ex are both at least 62. However, remarriage will mean the loss of ex-spousal benefits. However, if your later marriage also ends, you again become eligible for the ex-spousal benefits.
  3. Allowing your spouse to make a unilateral claiming decision. A 2018 study from the Center for Retirement Research found that a husband can increase his wife’s survivor benefits by 7.3% each year by waiting to claim his benefits. However, the study says that many husbands don’t think about the effect that their age at claiming benefits can have on their survivor and her benefits. Rather, many husbands will look at more immediate issues and decide to claim Social Security earlier. Despite being educated about the possible effect on their wives in the future, many husbands said they wouldn’t change their claiming age.

Talk to your spouse about how to best manage when each of you should file a claim for benefits and coordinate your retirement and your Social Security claims.

Reference: Money Talk News (Jan. 6, 2020) “3 Costly Social Security Mistakes That Women Make”

 

How Will a New NFL Policy Impact the Late Broncos Owner’s Estate Planning?

Although North Central Missouri is Chief’s Country, I thought you may be interested in an interesting estate planning situation that has developed with the Broncos NFL team.  No matter the late Pat Bowlen’s intentions of passing down ownership of the Broncos to one of his children via the Bowlen Trust, the NFL looks to be asserting its authority with a new policy on minimum ownership and team control.

Sports Illustrated’s recent article entitled “New NFL Ownership Policy Could Have Major Impact on Broncos” says that NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell now has the authority and power of levying fines up to $10 million per year to teams that aren’t in compliance with the policy and up to $2 million per year for individual owners.

The new NFL policy says that one person must hold at least the minimum amount of equity in the team and also have the final say in all team matters.

The Broncos and Tennessee Titans are the only two teams not currently in compliance with this policy, meaning that they both could be fined by the league up to $10 million within the next year. The Broncos are under control of the Pat Bowlen Trust, a three-person entity that was empowered with naming one of Bowlen’s seven children as his successor after his death in 2019. Within the trust, a list of expectations was provided by the Broncos’ late owner which were aimed at readying the eventual successor for life as an owner in the NFL.

However, as it now appears, there’s an ongoing lawsuit between the trust and a legal team for Beth Bowlen Wallace, as to who will be taking control of the team in the near future.

It looked like the trust selected Pat’s daughter Brittany Bowlen as the eventual owner. She has completed nearly every instruction set out by the late Mr. Bowlen when he created the trust in 2009. However, his oldest daughter, Bowlen Wallace, and her uncle Bill Bowlen, contend that Pat was already showing signs of Alzheimer’s Disease, which took his life in 2019—long before he signed his estate planning documents. The two say that he wasn’t in a competent state of mind to make such decisions. Bowlen Wallace and Bill also believe that Beth herself has already done everything asked of her late father in the trust and that she should be designated as the owner of the football team.

This mess is in litigation and could go on for years. A court hearing scheduled for September was postponed until 2021, due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Because of the lawsuit and the NFL’s deadline to name one person with “final say,” the team may be forced to sell—which was a possibility after Pat’s death. The other Bowlen children must approve on who the majority shareholder would be.

“It is an option, and we’ve told the beneficiaries that,” Broncos CEO Joe Ellis said of selling the team back in December of 2019. “Because if Brittany were to succeed and take over for her father, everybody else is going to have to sign off on that, most likely. That may not be a requirement, but it’s going to be necessary, I think, moving forward from a trustee viewpoint.

“That’s why a sale remains a possibility, I think, given the circumstances we’re in.”

Reference: Sports Illustrated (Nov. 23, 2020) “New NFL Ownership Policy Could Have Major Impact on Broncos”

Retirement Planning

The Wrong Power of Attorney Could Lead to a Bad Outcome

There are two different types of advance directives, and they have very different purposes, as explained in the article that asks “Does your estate plan use the right type of Power of Attorney for you?” from Next Avenue. Less than a third of retirees have a financial power of attorney, according to a study done by the Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies. Most people don’t even understand what these documents do, which is critically important, especially during this Covid-19 pandemic.

Two types of Durable Power of Attorney for Finance. The power of attorney for finance can be “springing” or “immediate.” The Durable POA refers to the fact that this POA will endure after you have lost mental or physical capacity, whether the condition is permanent or temporary. It lists when the powers are to be granted to the person of your choosing and the power ends upon your death.

The “immediate” Durable POA is effective the moment you sign the document. The “springing” Durable POA does not become effective, unless two physicians examine you and both determine that you cannot manage independently anymore. In the case of the “springing” POA, the person you name cannot do anything on your behalf without two doctors providing letters saying you lack legal capacity.

You might prefer the springing document because you are concerned that the person you have named to be your agent might take advantage of you. They could legally go to your bank and add their name to your accounts without your permission or even awareness. Some people decide to name their spouse as their immediate agent, and if anything happens to the spouse, the successor agents are the ones who need to get doctors’ letters. If you need doctors’ letters before the person you name can help you, ask your estate planning attorney for guidance.

The type of impairment that requires the use of a POA for finance can happen unexpectedly. It could include you and your spouse at the same time. If you were both exposed to Covid-19 and became sick, or if you were both in a serious car accident, this kind of planning would be helpful for your family.

It’s also important to choose the right person to be your POA. Ask yourself this question: If you gave this person your checkbook and asked them to pay your bills on time for a few months, would you expect that they would be able to do the job without any issues? If you feel any sense of incompetence or even mistrust, you should consider another person to be your representative.

If you should recover from your incapacity, your POA is required to turn everything back to you when you ask. If you are concerned this person won’t do this, you need to consider another person.

Broad powers are granted by a Durable POA. They allow your representative to buy property on your behalf and sell your property, including your home, manage your debt and Social Security benefits, file tax returns and handle any assets not named in a trust, such as your retirement accounts.

The executor of your will, your trustee, and Durable POA are often the same person. They have the responsibility to manage all of your assets, so they need to know where all of your important records can be found. They need to know that you have given them this role and you need to be sure they are prepared and willing to accept the responsibilities involved.

Your advance directive documents are only as good as the individuals you name to implement them. Family members or trusted friends who have no experience managing money or assets may not be the right choice. Your estate planning attorney will be able to guide you to make a good decision.

Reference: Market Watch (Oct. 5, 2020) “Does your estate plan use the right type of Power of Attorney for you?”

 

Is Estate Planning for Everyone?

Estate Planning for a Second Marriage and Blended Family

It takes a certain kind of courage to embark on second, third or even fourth marriages, even when there are no children from prior marriages. Regardless of how many times you walk down the aisle, the recent article “Establishing assets, goals when planning for a second marriage” from the Times Herald-Record advises couples to take care of the business side of their lives before saying “I do” again.

Full disclosure of each other’s assets, overall estate planning goals and plans for protecting assets from the cost of long-term care should happen before getting married. The discussion may not be easy, but it’s necessary: are they leaving assets to each other, or to children from a prior marriage? What if one wants to leave a substantial portion of their wealth to a charitable organization?

The first step recommended with remarriage is a prenuptial or prenup, a contract that the couple signs before getting married, to clarify what happens if they should divorce and what happens on death. The prenup typically lists all of each spouses’ assets and often a “Waiver of the Right of Election,” meaning they willingly give up any inheritance rights.

If the couple does not wish to have a prenup, they can use a Postnuptial Agreement (postnup). This document has the same intent and provisions as a prenup but is signed after they are legally wed. Over time, spouses may decide to leave assets to each other through trusts, owning assets together or naming each other as beneficiaries on various assets, including life insurance or investment accounts.

Without a pre-or postnup, assets will go to the surviving spouse upon death, with little or possibly nothing going to the children.

The couple should also talk about long-term care costs, which can decimate a family’s finances. Plan A is to have long-term care insurance. If either of the spouses has not secured this insurance and cannot get a policy, an alternate is to have their estate planning attorney create a Medicaid Asset Protection Trust (MAPT). Once assets have been inside the trust for five years for nursing home costs and two-and-a-half years for home care paid by Medicaid, they are protected from long-term care costs.

When applying for Medicaid, the assets of both spouses are at risk, regardless of pre- or postnup documents.

Discuss the use of trusts with your estate planning attorney. A will conveys property, but assets must go through probate, which can be costly, time-consuming and leave your assets open to court battles between heirs. Trusts avoid probate, maintain privacy and deflect family squabbles.

Creating a trust and placing the joint home and any assets, including cash and investments, inside the trust is a common estate planning strategy. When the first spouse dies, a co-trustee who serves with the surviving spouse can prevent the surviving spouse from changing the trust and by doing so, protect the children’s inheritance. Let’s say one of the couple suffers from dementia, remarries or is influenced by others—a new will could leave the children of the deceased spouse with nothing.

Many things can very easily go wrong in second marriages. Prior planning with an experienced estate planning attorney can protect the couple and their children and provide peace of mind for all concerned.

Reference: Times Herald-Record (Sep. 21, 2020) “Establishing assets, goals when planning for a second marriage”

 

What Does Actor Chadwick Boseman’s Estate Look Like?

Boseman passed away in late August after a four-year battle with colon cancer. He died without a will, and his estate is estimated at $938,500, according to papers filed in Los Angeles County probate court.

Boseman is best known for the movie “Black Panther,” as well as “42,” “Get on Up” and “Marshall.” He appeared earlier this year in Spike Lee’s “Da Five Bloods.”

USA Today’s recent article entitled “Chadwick Boseman’s wife seeks to administer estate of ‘Black Panther’ star, who died with no will” reports that in the court papers, Boseman’s wife, Simone Ledward (referred to in the documents by her legal name, Taylor Simone Ledward), asked to be appointed administrator with limited authority over the actor’s estate.

When there is no will to designate an executor, state law or a judge will make that determination. Most states say that the surviving spouse or registered domestic partner, if any, is the first choice. An adult child is then usually next on the list, followed by other family members.

If there’s no will, state law will direct what happens to property. If the deceased person was married, the surviving spouse typically gets the largest share.

Distant relatives inherit, only if there is no surviving spouse and if there are no children. If no relatives can be found, the state gets the assets.

In addition to Ledward, the actor is survived by his parents, Leroy and Carolyn Boseman, who are also named in the papers. Boseman’s family, including Ledward, were by his side when he died at his Los Angeles home.

According to People, Boseman and Ledward became engaged in 2019 and their last public appearance together was at the NBA All-Star Game in February in Chicago.

Boseman paid tribute to his wife during an acceptance speech at the 2019 NAACP Image Awards. “Simone, you’re with me every day. I have to acknowledge you right now. Love you.” Ledward blew him a kiss and mouthed back the words, “I love you.”

Reference: USA Today (Oct. 16, 2020) “Chadwick Boseman’s wife seeks to administer estate of ‘Black Panther’ star, who died with no will”

 

estate planning newsletter

What Do I Need to Do after the Death of My Spouse?

It probably is the last thing on your mind, but there are tasks that must be accomplished after the death of a spouse. You might want to ask for help and advice from a trusted family member, friend, or adviser to sort things out and provide you with emotional guidance.

Kiplinger’s recent article entitled “Checklist: Steps to Take after Your Spouse Dies” provides a checklist to help guide you through the most important tasks you need to complete:

Don’t make any big decisions. It’s not a good time to make any consequential financial decisions. You may wish to sell a home or other property that reminds you of your spouse, but you should wait. You should also refrain from making any additional investments or large purchases—especially if you weren’t actively involved in your family’s finances before the death.

Get certified copies of the death certificate. You’ll need certified copies of your spouse’s death certificate for any benefit claims or to switch over accounts into your name. Ask the funeral home for no fewer than 12 copies. You also may need certified marriage certificates to prove you were married to your late spouse.

Talk to your spouse’s employer. If your spouse was working when he or she passed, contact the employer to see if there are any benefits to which you are entitled, such as a 401(k) or employer-based insurance policy. If you and your dependents’ medical insurance was through your spouse’s job, find out how long the coverage will be in effect and begin making other arrangements.

Contact your spouse’s insurance company and file a claim. Get the documentation in order prior to contacting the insurance company and make certain that you understand the benefit options to claim a life insurance benefit.

Probate the estate. Get a hold of the will. Contact the attorney for help in settling the estate. If your spouse didn’t have a will, it will be more complicated. Reach out to an experienced estate planning attorney or elder law attorney for advice in this situation.

Collect all financial records. Begin collecting financial records, including bank records, bills, credit card statements, tax returns, insurance policies, mortgages, loans and retirement accounts. If your spouse wasn’t organized, this might take some time. You may be required to contact companies directly and provide proof of your spouse passing, before being able to gain access to the accounts.

Transfer accounts and cancel credit cards. If your spouse was the only name on an account, like a utility, change the name if you want to keep the service or close the account. Get a copy of your spouse’s credit reports, so you’ll know of any debts in your spouse’s name. Request to have a notification in the credit report that says “Deceased — do not issue credit.” That way new credit won’t be taken out in the spouse’s name.

Contact government offices. Have your spouse’s Social Security number available and call the Social Security Administration office to determine what’s required to get survivor benefits. Do this as soon as possible to avoid long delays before you get your next Social Security payment. You may also qualify for a one-time death benefit of $255. If your spouse served in the armed forces, you may be eligible for additional benefits from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Therefore, contact your local office.

Change your emergency contact information. Change any of your or your family members’ emergency contact info that had your spouse’s name or number listed as someone else’s primary point of contact.

This checklist is a good way to help with the pressing tasks. You can also contact an estate planning attorney or elder law attorney for help.

Reference: Kiplinger (Aug. 27, 2020) “Checklist: Steps to Take after Your Spouse Dies”

 

Is Estate Planning for Everyone?

What Is Estate Planning and Is It for Everyone?

A key objective of estate planning is to make certain that your assets go to those you want, rather than distant family. It also can minimize taxes, so your beneficiaries can keep more of your wealth. Finally, sound estate planning can decrease family fighting and provide clear end-of-life directives, if you become incapacitated before you die.

Bankrate’s recent article entitled “What is estate planning?” gives us a look at estate planning and why you absolutely need it, regardless of how much wealth you have. Here are a few of the most common elements of an estate plan and what you should consider.

Beneficiary designations. When you open a financial account, checking, savings, brokerage, or insurance account, you’ll be asked to name a beneficiary for the account. This person will get any funds from the account at your death. You can have multiple beneficiaries and should also name contingent beneficiaries in case the primary beneficiaries are not living when you pass away. Naming a beneficiary supersedes any other declaration in your estate.

Will. This is another key document in the estate plan. When you die, it instructs where your assets will go. Property that’s owned jointly, such as with a spouse, passes directly to the surviving owner(s). An executor will be appointed to carry out the will and manage the distribution of assets.

Trusts. This is a legal vehicle that allows a third party (the trust) to hold assets for a beneficiary. They give you several estate planning options, including avoiding probate and privacy. Trusts also let you direct how your assets are distributed after your death. You can also name the trustee(s) to manage and direct the trust on your passing. Ask your experienced estate planning attorney to help you with your trust questions and to create one, if it is a good idea.

Living wills. In the event you become incapacitated, you should have a clear statement of your wishes. A living will states how you want to be treated during your end-of-life care, such as specific treatments to take or refrain from taking. A living will is often combined with a durable power of attorney, which can allow a surrogate to make decisions on behalf of the incapacitated individual.

Estate planning can help avoid many issues from arising, even if you don’t have a lot of money. By determining how you want to handle your estate before you die, you’ll save your loved ones a lot of effort, expense and stress concerning how your estate is distributed.

Reference: Bankrate (Aug. 3, 2020) “What is estate planning?”

 

Retirement Planning

The Biggest Social Security Blunders in Retirement

Fox News’ recent article entitled “These mistakes will take a huge bite out of your Social Security income” shares what we should and shouldn’t do.

  1. Not working a full 35 years. Your Social Security benefits are calculated based on your wages during your 35 highest-paid years of work. However, for each year you don’t have an income on record, you’ll have a $0 factored into your personal equation. That’s going to mean a lower monthly benefit. Therefore, to avoid this, be sure you put in a full 35 years in the workforce. It may actually help boost your benefit, by avoiding those dreaded $0 years. It will also potentially factor higher wages into your calculation.

Many people earn more money later in their careers. If your earnings are now at their highest, and you work another year to make it a full 35, you may be adding a salary that’s far more than what you earned 30 years before (even though your previous wages will be adjusted for inflation when determining what monthly benefit you get).

  1. Not delaying until your full retirement age to file. You won’t be entitled to collect all of your benefits until you reach full retirement age (FRA). Your FRA will depend on your year of birth, and if you were born in 1960 or later, it’s 67. Born in 1959 or before? It’s 66, or 66 and a number of months.

You can file for Social Security as early as age 62, but for each month you sign up prior to your FRA, your benefits are reduced on a permanent basis. That’s bad news if you don’t have a lot of money in retirement savings and need those benefits to ensure that you’re able to make ends meet in retirement.

  1. Delaying benefits beyond age 70. Just as you get the option to sign up for Social Security before FRA, you can also delay benefits past FRA and boost them by 8% a year in the process. But don’t postpone your filing too long! When you hit age 70, you stop accruing the delayed retirement credits that increase your benefits. Therefore, delaying beyond that point could mean missing out on income.
  2. Retire in a state that taxes your benefits. Social Security benefits may be taxed on the federal level, if your earnings exceed a certain threshold. However, some states also tax Social Security. These 13 states tax benefits to some degree: CO, CT. KS, MN, MO, MT, NE, NM, ND, RI, UT, VT, and WV. Some states have lower earner exemptions.

Don’t slash your Social Security income and struggle in retirement because of these mistakes.

Avoid these mistakes to be certain that you get as much money from Social Security as you’re entitled.

Reference: Fox News (Sep. 14, 2020) “These mistakes will take a huge bite out of your Social Security income’

 

Probate

What’s Involved in the Probate Process?

SWAAY’s recent article entitled “What is the Probate Process in Florida?” says that while every state has its own laws, the probate process can be fairly similar. Here are the basic steps in the probate process:

The family consults with an experienced probate attorney. Those mentioned in the decedent’s will should meet with a probate lawyer. During the meeting, all relevant documentation like the list of debts, life insurance policies, financial statements, real estate title deeds, and the will should be available.

Filing the petition. The process would be in initiated by the executor or personal representative named in the will. He or she is in charge of distributing the estate’s assets. If there’s no will, you can ask an estate planning attorney to petition a court to appoint an executor. When the court approves the estate representative, the Letters of Administration are issued as evidence of legal authority to act as the executor. The executor will pay state taxes, funeral costs, and creditor claims on behalf of the decedent. He or she will also notice creditors and beneficiaries, coordinate the asset distribution and then close the probate estate.

Noticing beneficiaries and creditors. The executor must notify all beneficiaries of trust estates, the surviving spouse and all parties that have the rights of inheritance. Creditors of the deceased will also want to be paid and will make a claim on the estate.

Obtaining the letters of administration (letters testamentary) obtained from the probate court. After the executor obtains the letter, he or she will open the estate account at a bank. Statements and assets that were in the deceased name will be liquidated and sold, if there’s a need. Proceeds obtained from the sale of property are kept in the estate account and are later distributed.

Settling all expenses, taxes, and estate debts. By law, the decedent’s debts must typically be settled prior to any distributions to the heirs. The executor will also prepare a final income tax return for the estate. Note that life insurance policies and retirement savings are distributed to heirs despite the debts owed, as they transfer by beneficiary designation outside of the will and probate.

Conducting an inventory of the estate. The executor will have conducted a final account of the remaining estate. This accounting will include the fees paid to the executor, probate expenses, cost of assets and the charges incurred when settling debts.

Distributing the assets. After the creditor claims have been settled, the executor will ask the court to transfer all assets to successors in compliance with state law or the provisions of the will. The court will issue an order to move the assets. If there’s no will, the state probate succession laws will decide who is entitled to receive a share of the property.

Finalizing the probate estate. The last step is for the executor to formally close the estate. The includes payment to creditors and distribution of assets, preparing a final distribution document and a closing affidavit that states that the assets were adequately distributed to all heirs.

Reference: SWAAY (Aug. 24, 2020) “What is the Probate Process in Florida?”