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Estate Planning Blog

Serving Clients Throughout North Central Missouri

401k retirement

How Does an Inherited IRA or 401(k) Work?

The rules for inheriting retirement assets are complicated—just as complicated as the rules for having 401(k)s and IRA to begin with. Mistakes can be hard to undo, warns the article “Here’s how to handle the complicated rules for an inherited 401(k) or IRA” from CNBC.

The 2019 Secure Act changed how inherited tax deferred assets are treated after the original owner’s death. The options depend upon the relationship between the owner and the heir. The ability to stretch out distributions across the heir’s lifetime if the owner died on or after January 1, 2020 ended for most heirs. Exceptions are the spouse, certain disabled beneficiaries, or minor children of the decedent. Otherwise, those accounts must be depleted within ten years.

Non-spouses with flexibility include minor children. That’s all well and fine, but once the minor child turns 18 (in most states), the 10-year rule kicks in and the individual has 10 years to empty the account. Before that time, the minor child must take annual required minimum distributions (RMDs) based on their own life expectancy.

These required withdrawals typically begin when a retiree reaches age 72, and the amount is based on the account owner’s anticipated lifespan.

Beneficiaries who are chronically ill or disabled, or who are not more than ten years younger than the decedent, may take distributions based on their own life expectancy. They are not subject to the ten- year rule.

Beneficiaries subject to that ten-year depletion rule should create a strategy, including creating an Inherited IRA and transferring the funds to it. If the inherited account is a Roth or a traditional IRA, the process is slightly different. Distributions from a Roth IRA are generally tax-free, and traditional IRA distributions are taxed when withdrawals occur. One point about Roths—if you inherit a Roth that’s less than five years old, any earnings withdrawn will be subject to taxes, but the contributed after-tax amounts remain tax-free.

If an heir ends up with a retirement account via an estate, versus being the named beneficiary on the account, the account must be depleted within five years, if the original owner had not started taking RMDs. If RMDs were underway, the heir would need to keep those withdrawals going as if the original owner continued to live.

For spouses, there are more options. First, roll the money into your own IRA and follow the standard RMD rules. At age 72, start taking required withdrawals based on your own life expectancy. If you don’t need the income, you can leave the money in the account, where it can continue to grow. However, if you are not yet age 59½, you may be subject to a 10% early withdrawal penalty if you take money from the account. In that case, put the money into an Inherited IRA account, with yourself as the beneficiary.

IRAs and 401(k)s are complicated. Speak with your estate planning attorney to make an informed decision when creating an estate plan, so your inherited assets will work with, not against, your overall strategy.

Reference: CNBC (April 11, 2021) “Here’s how to handle the complicated rules for an inherited 401(k) or IRA”

 

personal injury

Should I Name a Living Trust Beneficiary of a Roth IRA?

The simple answer is yes, a living trust can be the beneficiary of a Roth IRA. However, without knowing more about an individual’s specific circumstances, it’s hard to know if this is a wise move.

A November 2018 article from NJ Money Help entitled, “Be careful when choosing a beneficiary,” explains that there are several things you need to know when considering a living trust as the beneficiary of a Roth IRA.

By designating a living trust as your beneficiary, the distributions from the Roth at your death will become mandatory based on the life expectancy of the oldest beneficiary named in the trust.

This is an important point if you’re currently married. That’s because you’ll forfeit the ability for a spousal rollover, by naming the trust as your beneficiary.

Current law permits IRAs to be passed to a spouse as a beneficiary, and the spousal beneficiary can treat the account as if it was their own IRA.

In the case of a Roth IRA, this means the surviving spouse can continue to defer distributions tax-free for their lifetime.

By naming the living trust as beneficiary, this benefit is lost no matter if your spouse is one of the living trust beneficiaries.

Why?

Distributions are required to begin immediately, if the beneficiary is anyone other than a spouse.

Thus, you would forgo the ability to allow the funds to continue to grow tax-free for a longer period of time.

You should talk about this with an experienced estate planning attorney. He or she will be able to look at your entire financial situation before you determine if this is a wise move for you.

Reference: NJ Money Help (Nov. 2018) “Be careful when choosing a beneficiary”

 

married couples estate planning

The Stretch IRA Is Diminished but Not Completely Gone

Before the SECURE Act, named beneficiaries who inherited an IRA were able to take distributions over the course of their lifetimes. This allowed the IRA to grow over many years, sometimes decades. This option came to an end in 2019 for most heirs, but not for all, says the recent article “Who is Still Eligible for a Stretch IRA?” from Fed Week.

A quick refresher: the SECURE ActSetting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement—was passed in December 2019. Its purpose was, ostensibly, to make retirement savings more accessible for less-advantaged people. Among many other things, it extended the time workers could put savings into IRAs and when they needed to start taking Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs).

However, one of the features not welcomed by many, was the change in inherited IRA distributions. Those not eligible for the stretch option must empty the account, no matter its size, within ten years of the death of the original owner. Large IRAs are diminished by the taxes and some individuals are pushed into higher tax brackets as a result.

However, not everyone has lost the ability to use the stretch option, including anyone who inherited an IRA before January 1, 2020. This is who is included in this category:

  • Surviving Spouses.
  • Minor children of the deceased account owner–but only until they reach the age of majority. Once the minor becomes of legal age, he or she must deplete the IRA within ten years. The only exception is for full-time students, which ends at age 26.
  • Disabled individuals. There is a high bar to qualify. The person must meet the total disability definition, which is close to the definition used by Social Security. The person must be unable to engage in any type of employment because of a medically determined or mental impairment that would result in death or to be of chronic duration.
  • Chronically ill persons. This is another challenge for qualifying. The individual must meet the same standards used by insurance companies used to qualify policyowners for long-term care coverage. The person must be certified by a treating physician or other licensed health care practitioner as not able to perform at least two activities of daily living or require substantial supervision, due to a cognitive impairment.
  • Those who are not more than ten years younger than the deceased account owner. That means any beneficiary, not just someone who was related to the account owner.

What was behind this change? Despite the struggles of most Americans to put aside money for their retirement, which is a looming national crisis, there are trillions of dollars sitting in IRA accounts. Where better to find tax revenue, than in these accounts? Yes, this was a major tax grab for the federal coffers.

Reference: Fed Week (March 3, 2021) “Who is Still Eligible for a Stretch IRA?”

 

Retirement Planning

The Biggest Social Security Blunders in Retirement

Fox News’ recent article entitled “These mistakes will take a huge bite out of your Social Security income” shares what we should and shouldn’t do.

  1. Not working a full 35 years. Your Social Security benefits are calculated based on your wages during your 35 highest-paid years of work. However, for each year you don’t have an income on record, you’ll have a $0 factored into your personal equation. That’s going to mean a lower monthly benefit. Therefore, to avoid this, be sure you put in a full 35 years in the workforce. It may actually help boost your benefit, by avoiding those dreaded $0 years. It will also potentially factor higher wages into your calculation.

Many people earn more money later in their careers. If your earnings are now at their highest, and you work another year to make it a full 35, you may be adding a salary that’s far more than what you earned 30 years before (even though your previous wages will be adjusted for inflation when determining what monthly benefit you get).

  1. Not delaying until your full retirement age to file. You won’t be entitled to collect all of your benefits until you reach full retirement age (FRA). Your FRA will depend on your year of birth, and if you were born in 1960 or later, it’s 67. Born in 1959 or before? It’s 66, or 66 and a number of months.

You can file for Social Security as early as age 62, but for each month you sign up prior to your FRA, your benefits are reduced on a permanent basis. That’s bad news if you don’t have a lot of money in retirement savings and need those benefits to ensure that you’re able to make ends meet in retirement.

  1. Delaying benefits beyond age 70. Just as you get the option to sign up for Social Security before FRA, you can also delay benefits past FRA and boost them by 8% a year in the process. But don’t postpone your filing too long! When you hit age 70, you stop accruing the delayed retirement credits that increase your benefits. Therefore, delaying beyond that point could mean missing out on income.
  2. Retire in a state that taxes your benefits. Social Security benefits may be taxed on the federal level, if your earnings exceed a certain threshold. However, some states also tax Social Security. These 13 states tax benefits to some degree: CO, CT. KS, MN, MO, MT, NE, NM, ND, RI, UT, VT, and WV. Some states have lower earner exemptions.

Don’t slash your Social Security income and struggle in retirement because of these mistakes.

Avoid these mistakes to be certain that you get as much money from Social Security as you’re entitled.

Reference: Fox News (Sep. 14, 2020) “These mistakes will take a huge bite out of your Social Security income’

 

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